Europeanization of European Businesses: Economies of Scope and Managerial Implications

Krzysztof Wach


RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:The article takes as objective the identification and evaluation of the current state-of-the-art and tendencies of Europeanisation of European businesses and onceptualisation of modelling the Europeanisation process of businesses and their strategies.

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: Although initiated in the political sciences, since the beginning of 21st century the research into the phenomenon of Europeanisation has been more and more confidently entering the economic sciences. The study is based on a typical literature review using the conventional research methods of deduction, reduction, synthesis and theoretical modelling. 

THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: On the one hand, the presented discussions have a character of creative synthesis and systematics of the output of economic sciences within the scope of business Europeanisation, which includes three overlapping areas, namely the theory of the firm,  the theory of internationalisation and the theory of international entrepreneurship, all of them developed both in economics and in management. On the other hand, the work is an attempt of the conceptualization of the business Europeanisation process in the holistic, inter-disciplinary representation. The search for universal determinants and mechanisms of business Europeanisation was determined by several purposes which were achieved in the course of the undertaken research works.

RESEARCH RESULTS: The article proposes a conceptual framework to analyse Europeanization of a firm in its business environment, with its internal characteristics such as competitiveness and flexibility to focus on the factors, mechanisms, fields and sense of Europeanization.

CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Based on the in-depth literature study and as the contribution the Author suggest that Europeanization strategies are assigned into four fields of an adapted internationalization matrix: Pan-European, Sub-European, Euromultiterritorial and Eurominimalistic strategies. 

Słowa kluczowe

biznes międzynarodowy, Unia Europejska, europeizacja

Pełny tekst:

PDF (English)


Ansoff, H.I. (2007). Strategic Management. 11th edition. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Balabanis, G., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2004). Domestic Country Bias, Country-of-Origin Effects, and Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Multidimensional Unfolding Approach.

Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 32(1), 80–95.

Berry, J. (2006). Offshoring Opportunities. Strategies and Tactics for Global Competitiveness. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Caligiuri, P.M., & Stroh, L.K. (1995). Multinational Corporate Management Strategies and International Human Resources Practices: Bringing IHRM to the Bottom Line. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6(3), 494–567.

Coen, D., & Dannreuther, Ch. (2002). When Size Matters. Europeanisation of large and SME business Government Relations, Politique européenne, 3(7):115-137.

Diamantopoulos, A., Schlegelmilch, B.B., & Du Preez, J.P. (1995). Lessons for Pan-European Marketing? The Role of Consumer Preferences in Fine-Tuning the Product-Market Fit. International Marketing Review, 12(2), 38–52.

European Commission (1994). Integrated Programme in favour of SMEs and the Craft Sector, Communication for the Council of 3 June 1994, COM(94) 207 final, Brussels 1994.

Fligstein, N. (2009), The Europeanization of Business, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, special number 49: 107-124.

Floyd, D., (2001), Globalisation or Europeanisation of Business Activity? Exploring the Critical Issues, European Business Review, 13(2): 109–113.

Guido, G. (1991). Implementing a Pan European Marketing Strategy. Long Range Planning, 24(5), 23–33.

Halliburton, Ch., & Hünenberg, R. (1993). Pan-European Marketing – Myth or Reality. Journal of International Marketing, 1(3), 77–91.

Halliburton, Ch., & Hünenberg, R. (2004). Pan-European Marketing Ten Years After 1993 – A Current Appraisal and Proposed Conceptual Framework. Journal of Euromarketing, 14(1), 15–34.

Harris, Ph., & McDonald, F., (2004), European Business & Marketing, 2nd ed., London – Thousand Oaks – New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

Hatzichronogou, Th. et al. (2007). Offshoring and Employment. Trends and Impacts. Paris – Danvers: OECD.

Heenan, D.A., & Permutter, H.V. (1979). Multinational Organizational Development: A Social Architectural Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Jakubowski, I. (1995). Marketing in the New Europe. British Food Journal, 1997(6), 20.

Johanson, J., Vahlne, J.-E. (1977), The Internationalization Process of the Firm: A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Commitments, Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1): 23-32.

Kalogeresis, A., & Labrianidis, L. (2010). Delocalization and Development: Empirical Findings from Selected European Countries. Competition and Change, 14(2), 100-123.

Lim, L.K.S. , Acito, F., & Rusetski, A. (2006). Development of Archetypes of International Marketing Strategy. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(4), 499–524.

Martin, A. (2009). The Impact of Taxation on the Investment Localization Decision in the Context of Globalization. Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 56, 133–142.

OECD (2012), Looking to 2060: A Global Term Growth, (“Economics Department Policy Notes”, No. 15), November 2012, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Paliwoda, S., & Marinova, S. (2007). The Marketing Challenges within the Enlarged Single European Market. European Journal of Marketing, 41(3–4).

Pickles, J., & Smith, A. (2011). Delocalization and Presistence in the European Clothing Industry: The Reconfiguration of Trade and Production Networks. Regional Studies, 45(2), 167–185.

Rollings, N. (2007). British Business History: A Review of the Periodical Literature for 2005. Business History, 49(3), 271–292.

Schröter, H.G. (2008). The European Enterprise. Its Relevance and Problems. In: H.G. Schröter (Ed.), The European Enterprise. Historical Investigation into a Future Species. Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer.

Totev, S., & Sariiski, G. (2010). Industrial Delocalization in an Integrating Europe. A Survey of Enterprises in the Footwear Industry. Eastern European Economics, 48(1), 43–63.

Wach, K. (2014c). The scale of internationalisation and Europeanisation of SMEs and their functioning in the spatial systems of the European Union. Przedsiębiorczość – Edukacja, 10, 136-148.

Wach, K. (2015). Conceptualizing Europeanization: Theoretical Approaches and Research Designs (chapter 1). In: P. Stanek & K. Wach (Eds.). Europeanization Processes from the Mesoeconomic Perspective: Industries and Policies. Kraków: Cracow University of Economics, pp. 11-23.

Wach, K. (2014a). Europeanization of Firms as Their International Growth within the European Union: The Empirical Investigation into the Internationalisation Level among Polish Firms (chapter 1) In: B. Knežević & K. Wach (Eds.). International Business from the Central European Perspective (pp. 3-14). Zagreb: University of Zagreb.

Wach, K. (2014b). Internationalisation and Globalisation as the Wider Context of Europeanization Processes from the Macro- and Microeconomic Perspective. Horyzonty Polityki, 5(10), 11-30.


  • There are currently no refbacks.